16 rumus tenses lengkap

Tenses adalah salah satu bagian dari part of speech yang paling krusial. Saking krusialnya, para pembelajar bahasa Inggris banyak yang takut sama materi satu ini! Padahal sebenarnya, belajar tenses nggak semengerikan itu kok. Yang terpenting kamu 1) paham formula inti tenses, 2) mau menghafal rumus, dan 3) mau mempraktikkannya.

Ingin tahu selengkap mungkin tentang formula tenses, rumus, dan contoh kalimatnya? Behold, Kampung Inggris LC mempersembahkan 16 tenses lengkap dengan rumus sekaligus contohnya untukmu.

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Tense adalah bentuk kalimat yang paling umum dalam bahasa Inggris. Kalimat simple present tidak terikat waktu, sehingga penggunaannya lebih bebas dibanding jenis tenses lainnya.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + V1 + (s/es) Dad works hard everyday
  Nominal Subject + is/am/are + nominal She is more beautiful than usual
Negative Verbal Subject + don’t/doesn’t + V1 I don’t know what to say to her
  Nominal Subject + is/am/are + not + nominal They aren’t as bad as you think
Interrogative Verbal Do/Does + Subject + V1 + ? Does he know about this?
  Nominal Is/Am/Are + Subject + nominal + ? Are you better than yesterday?

Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense sama sederhananya dengan simple present, akan tetapi simple past tense sudah terikat dengan waktu lampau. Saat kamu bicara menggunakan simple past tense, itu berarti peristiwa yang kamu ceritakan sudah terjadi di masa lalu.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + V2 She drove to the town solely
  Nominal Subject + was/were + nominal You were glad to meet him
Negative Verbal Subject + didn’t + V1 She didn’t drive to the town solely
  Nominal Subject + was/were + not + nominal You weren’t glad to meet him
Interrogative Verbal Did + Subject + V1 + ? Did she drive to the town solely?
  Nominal Was/were + Subject + nominal + ? Were you glad to meet him?

Simple Future Tense

Simple future tense adalah bentuk tenses yang bisa kamu pakai buat menjelaskan hal yang akan terjadi di masa depan,  LCers.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + will + V1 You will know sooner or later
  Nominal Subject + will + be + nominal Henry will be the champion today
Negative Verbal Subject + won’t + V1 You won’t know till you’ve tried
  Nominal Subject + won’t + be + nominal She won’t be the model
Interrogative Verbal Will + Subject + V1 + ? Will the police come on time?
  Nominal Will + Subject + be + nominal + ? Will she become a nurse soon?

Simple Past Future Tense

Nah, simple past future tense adalah bagian pertama dari rangkaian empat bentuk “future in the past”. FYI, yang dimaksud future in the past adalah kejadian yang seharusnya terjadi, tapi tidak atau belum terjadi. Simple past future tense bisa kamu pakai untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang seharusnya terjadi, seandainya ada faktor lain yang tidak berubah.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + should/would + bare infinitive Sarah should go to the hospital
  Nominal Subject + was/were + going to + bare infinitive He would be a writer
Negative Verbal Subject + should/would + not + bare infinitive Sarah should not go to the hospital
  Nominal Subject + was/were + not + going to + bare infinitive He wouldn’t be a writer
Interrogative Verbal Should/would + subject + bare infinitive + ? Should Sarah go to the hospital?
  Nominal Was/were + subject + going to + bare infinitive + ? Would he be a writer?

Present Continuous Tense

Continuous tense adalah jenis kalimat yang digunakan untuk menerangkan sesuatu yang sedang dalam proses dilakukan. Oleh karena “proses” yang masih berjalan tersebut, continuous tense disebut juga progressive tense.

Sementara itu, present continuous tense adalah bentuk kalimat yang bisa kamu gunakan untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang sedang dalam proses dilakukan.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + is/am/are + Ving She is playing a kite
  Nominal Subject + is/am/are + nominal Fajar is a college student
Negative Verbal Subject + is/am/are + not + Ving She is not playing a kite
  Nominal Subject + is/am/are + not + nominal Fajar isn’t a college student
Interrogative Verbal Is/Am/Are + Subject + Ving + ? Is she playing a kite?
  Nominal Is/Am/Are + Subject + nominal + ? Is Fajar a college student?

Past Continuous Tense

Dengan memakai past continuous tense, kamu bisa menerangkan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lalu. Misalnya begini nih, kemarin saudaramu menelpon saat kamu sedang makan. Kalau dibahasa-Inggriskan, kalimat tersebut bisa menjadi “You were eating when your brother called yesterday”.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + was/were + Ving They were trying a new road
  Nominal Subject + was/were + nominal Alea was afraid of the dark
Negative Verbal Subject + was/were + not + Ving They weren’t trying a new road
  Nominal Subject + was/were + nominal Alea wasn’t afraid of the dark
Interrogative Verbal Was/were + Subject + Ving + ? Were they trying a new road?
  Nominal Was/were + Subject + nominal + ? Was Alea afraid of the dark?

Future Continuous Tense

Misalnya kamu ditanyai “apa yang akan kamu lakukan besok jam 9 pagi?”, lalu kamu menjawab “sedang mengikuti pelajaran Sejarah (sejak jam 8 sampai 10 pagi)”. Itu berarti jawabanmu itu memiliki bentuk future continuous tense.

Singkatnya, future continuous tense adalah bentuk tenses yang bisa dipakai untuk mengekspresikan peristiwa yang akan dalam proses di masa depan.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + will + be + Ving I will be going to the school tomorrow, Nanda
  Nominal Subject + will + being + nominal She will being a hero the day after tomorrow
Negative Verbal Subject + will + not + be + Ving I won’t be going to the school tomorrow, Nanda
  Nominal Subject + will + not + being + nominal She won’t being a hero the day after tomorrow
Interrogative Verbal Will + Subject + be + Ving + ? Will I be going to the school tomorrow, Nanda?
  Nominal Will + Subject + being + nominal + ? Will she being a hero the day after tomorrow

Past Future Continuous Tense

Past future continuous tense adalah bentuk kalimat kedua dalam seri “future in the past” setelah simple past future tense. Past future continuous biasanya digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang mungkin sedang terjadi di masa lalu seandainya terjadi sesuatu yang lain.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + would + be + Ving We would be coming to your house if you were at home
  Nominal Subject + would + being + nominal My son would being the actor if he wasn’t sick
Negative Verbal Subject + would + not + be + Ving We would not be coming to your house if you were at home
  Nominal Subject + would + not + being + nominal My son would not being the actor if he wasn’t sick
Interrogative Verbal Would + Subject + be + Ving + ? Would we be coming to your house if you were at home?
  Nominal Would + Subject + being + nominal + ? Would my son being the actor if he wasn’t sick?

Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense adalah kalimat yang bisa kamu pakai untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang sudah terjadi di masa sekarang. Jika past tense digunakan hanya untuk menjelaskan bahwa sebuah peristiwa terjadi di masa lalu, perfect tense digunakan untuk menegaskan sebuah peristiwa benar-benar sudah terjadi di masa lalu.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + has/have + V3 I have done the task earlier
  Nominal Subject + has/have + been + nominal She has been a good doctor for the girl a while ago
Negative Verbal Subject + has/have + not + V3 I haven’t done the task earlier
  Nominal Subject + has/have + not + been + nominal She hasn’t been a good doctor for the girl a while ago
Interrogative Verbal Has/have + Subject + V3 + ? Have I done the task earlier?
  Nominal Has/have + Subject + been + nominal + ? Has she been a good doctor for the girl a while ago?

Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense biasa digunakan untuk menegaskan sesuatu sudah terjadi, tapi di masa lalu. Bentuk kalimat ini bisa kamu gunakan saat seseorang meminta kepastian tentang sesuatu yang sudah kamu lakukan di masa lalu.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + had + V3 Ricko had finished his homework yesterday
  Nominal Subject + had + been + nominal I had been the teacher some years ago
Negative Verbal Subject + had + not + V3 Ricko hadn’t finished his homework yesterday
  Nominal Subject + had + not + been + nominal I hadn’t been the teacher some years ago
Interrogative Verbal Had + Subject + V3 + ? Had Ricko finished his homework yesterday?
  Nominal Had + Subject + been + nominal + ? Had I been the teacher some years ago?

Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense bisa kamu gunakan untuk menerangkan sesuatu yang akan sudah kamu selesaikan di masa depan. Misalnya kamu ditanyai apakah tugasmu sudah selesai besok, kamu bisa menjawab pertanyaan tersebut dalam bentuk future perfect tense.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + will + have + V3 I will have finished the cleaning in 4 hours
  Nominal Subject + will + have + been + nominal The students will have been graduates in some months
Negative Verbal Subject + will + not + have + V3 I won’t have finished the cleaning in 4 hours
  Nominal Subject + will + not + have + been + nominal The students won’t have been graduates in some months
Interrogative Verbal Will + subject + have + V3 + ? Will I have finished the cleaning in 4 hours?
  Nominal Will + subject + have + been + nominal + ? Will the students have graduated in some months?

Past Future Perfect Tense

Dengan menggunakan kalimat bentuk ini, kamu bisa menyatakan sesuatu yang benar-benar akan terjadi tapi tidak terjadi. Anyway, past future perfect tense adalah bentuk kalimat future in the past yang paling mutlak.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + should/would + have + V3 He would’ve done the tasks if he wasn’t going to the cinema
  Nominal Subject + should/would + have + been + nominal I should’ve been a soldier but I was failed
Negative Verbal Subject + should/would + not + have + V3 He wouldn’t have done the tasks if he wasn’t going to the cinema
  Nominal Subject + should/would + not + have + been + nominal I shouldn’t have been a soldier but I was failed
Interrogative Verbal Should/would + subject + have + V3 + ? Would he done the tasks if he wasn’t going to the cinema?
  Nominal Should/would + subject + have + been + nominal + ? Should I have been a soldier if I was failed?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present perfect continuous tense biasanya digunakan untuk menerangkan sesuatu yang sudah dilakukan dan masih dilakukan hingga sekarang

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + has/have + been + Ving + since/for Mom has been working there since 2006
  Nominal Subject + has/have + been + being + nominal + since/for She has been being a director since 2 years ago
Negative Verbal Subject + has/have + not + been + Ving + since/for Mom hasn’t been working there since 2006
  Nominal Subject + has/have + not + been + being + nominal + since/for She hasn’t been being a director since 2 years ago
Interrogative Verbal Has/have + subject + been + Ving + since/for + ? Has Mom been working there since 2006?
  Nominal Has/have + subject + been + being + nomina + since/for? Has she been being a director since 2 years ago?

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past perfect continuous  tense adalah bentuk kalimat untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang sudah dan masih dilakukan di masa lalu

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + had + been + Ving + since/for I had been pushing the door for 35 minutes
  Nominal Subject + had + been + being + nominal + since/for They had been being the choir since 2012
Negative Verbal Subject + had + not + been + Ving + since/for I hadn’t been pushing the door for 35 minutes
  Nominal Subject + had + not + been + being + nominal + since/for They hadn’t been being the choir since 2012
Interrogative Verbal Had + subject + been + Ving + since/for + ? Had I been pushing the door for 35 minutes?
  Nominal Had + subject + been + being + nomina + since/for? Had they been being the choir since 2012?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Ayo main contoh-contohan lagi nih buat memahami future perfect continuous tense. Misalnya kamu sedang janjian dengan temanmu untuk ke bioskop, tapi temanmu telat 30 menit. Saat ditanyai apa yang kamu lakukan, kamu bisa menjawab “aku sudah mulai menonton film 30 menit lalu”.

Simpelnya, future perfect continuous bisa kamu pakai buat mengekspresikan peristiwa yang telah dan dalam proses kamu lakukan di masa depan.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + will + have + been + Ving + since/for I will have been watching the TV since Felice come
  Nominal Subject + will + have + been + being + nominal + since/for She will have been being a doctor since 2016
Negative Verbal Subject + will + not + have + been + Ving + since/for I won’t have been watching the TV since Felice come
  Nominal Subject + will + not + have + been + being + nominal + since/for She won’t has been being a doctor since 2016
Interrogative Verbal Will + subject + have + been + Ving + since/for? Will I have been watching the TV since Felice come?
  Nominal Will + subject + have + been + being + nominal + since/for? Will she has been being a doctor since 2016?

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Kalimat ini mirip dengan bentuk tenses sebelumnya, yaitu future perfect continuous, tapi terjadinya di masa lalu. Past future perfect continuous tense adalah bentuk kalimat future in the past yang tertinggi, tapi to tell you the truth, jarang digunakan.

SENTENCES   FORMULA EXAMPLES
Positive Verbal Subject + would/should + have + been + Ving + since/for I would have been watching the TV since Felice came
  Nominal Subject + would/should + have + been + being + nominal + since/for She would has been being a doctor since 2016
Negative Verbal Subject + would/should + not + have + been + Ving + since/for I wouldn’t have been watching the TV since Felice came
  Nominal Subject + would/should + not + have + been + being + nominal + since/for She wouldn’t has been being a doctor since 2016
Interrogative Verbal Would/should + subject + have + been + Ving + since/for + ? Would I have been watching the TV since Felice came?
  Nominal Would/should + subject + have + been + being + nominal + since/for? Would she have been being a doctor since 2016?

 

Itulah penjelasan lengkap dan detail tentang 16 tenses disertai rumusnya, LCers. Kalau kamu mau belajar tenses lebih giat lagi, kamu bisa langsung datang ke Kampung Inggris Pare ya, ingat ke Kampung Inggris LC langsung!

Kalau belum sempat kursus ke sini, kamu bisa belajar otodidak dulu melalui situs Kampung Inggris LC ini ya, langsung aja klik: Perbedaan Which dan That dalam Clauses